Mud of the Trenches: the 4th Liberty Bond Train

by Kristine Schmucker, HCHM Curator

Throughout the fall of 1918, Harvey County was focused on the war effort in France.  The purchase of Liberty Bonds was one way to show support for war efforts at home.

Liberty Bond Booth, Fall 1918. Intersection of 6th & Main, Newton, Ks. (Kansas State Bank in the background)

“Crowds Expected to Gather”

To kick off the 4th Liberty Loan Bond drive, a train with a war exhibit stopped in Newton on Saturday morning, September 28, 1918. Across the nation, kick-off events were held to encourage the purchase of Liberty Bonds. As part of the promotion, twenty-four trains traveled from town to town reaching four towns each day.  On board, were “speakers and salesmen”  who received “subscriptions . . . as they moved place to place.”

In the days prior to the trains arrival,  the newspaper editor assured the public that there would “be ample space for the crowds expected to gather.”

“Mud of the Trenches”

On Saturday morning, the train under the guard of  three squads from Co F National Guard arrived and parked at east 6th. The train consisted of two flat cars, one box car and a Pullman.  Items on display were “all newly captured” at the front including German howitzers and siege guns. Together the objects “show . . . what our men are going through over at the front.” Many of the objects were captured during a battle at Hoboken on September 12, 1918 and arrived in Newton “with mud of the trenches adhering to their wheels.”

Wounded soldiers recently returned from the trenches in France also accompanied the train.



Evening Kansan Republican, 28 September 1918, p. 3.

The occasion was also marked with a parade of the Newton drum corps under that direction of Paul Hubner.

After completing the tour, “the war material, guns, bombs, were returned to France “to be used in the war on the Hun.” 

The editor of the Evening Kansan Republican noted:

“Perhaps no one thing could be picked out as of special interest, but it was all a display that brought the people into a feeling of closer proximity to the actual fighting.”

List of objects in the War Exhibit

Evening Kansan Republican, 28 September 1918.

4th Liberty Loan Drive

The week following was devoted to “education, publicity, and preparation.” Sunday, October 6 was declared “Liberty Loan Sunday” and subscriptions to the loan would take place October 7 through October 12. The quota for Harvey County was $688,000,000.

Newton Journal, 27 September 1918

The following week, October 14-19, was “devoted to cleaning up unfinished work and looking after slackers.”

A new button was created.  Earlier buttons had a metal base with a celluloid cover with a lithograph design.  Buttons for the 4th Liberty Loan did not have the celluloid due to expense and “the fact that it is needed for making explosives.” The design was lithographed on the metal at nearly half the cost. More than 30,000,000 buttons were ordered.

4th Liberty Loan Pin, 09/1918 HCHM # 91.19.53

“Over the Top”

The Saturday, October 19 Evening Kansan Republican reported that “Harvey County is nicely over the top in the Fourth Liberty Loan drive.”

Evening Kansan Republican, 19 October 1918.


Click the link below to watch President Wilson leading the 4th Liberty Loan Parade in September 27, 1918 at Pennsylvania Railroad Station, New York.


  • Evening Kansan Republican, 26 September 1918, 28 September 1918, 19 October 1918.
  • Newton Journal 27 September 1918.

Around the Farm: Barns

Barns are such an important part of farm life in Harvey County. We thought we would share a few photos from our collection.


Unidentified farm.

George Kline Family Farm

Macon Township, Harvey County, Ks

Kline Farm

Kline Family Farm

George Kline Farm, Macon Township, Harvey County, Ks

Lunch break, Kline Family Farm.

Barn Memories

“We used to put on theatricals upstairs in our barn.  One, especially, had a disappearing stunt in it and the only way we could disappear was to stand close to the hay chute and step backwards and slide down the chute and come out below in the cow’s manger. . . . we got stuck sometimes and a recess was declared and the cast disbanded to pull the unfortunate one out. . .”  Helen Purvis Johns Moore.


S. M. Spangler Family Farm

3 miles south on Old 81, Harvey County, Ks

S.M. Spangler Barn, ca. 1900. Located 3 miles south on old 81.

“Grandpa Spangler’s Manure Spreader on the S.M. Spangler Farm


Jacob Andres/Peter Claassen Barn, 1963.

1 mile west of Farmer’s Corner, west of Halstead to the right and west of the river.

Barn was built in 1876 by Jacob Andres and son Gustav. Later owners included Peter Claassen and C.F. (Fritz) Claassen.


Fred Klaassen Farm, 1938

Harvey County Extension Annual Report, 1938. “A view of the Fred Claassen home before undertaking rebuilding and landscaping.” Photo taken on October 23, 1938, by November 2 a foundation for the new barn was laid to the north & west of present barn.


  • Rogers, Ruth.   “The Emanuel Johns Family: My Life Story by Helen Purvis Johns Moore. The Homesteader, Harvey County Kansas Genealogical Society Newsletter, Vol. 13, Issue 2, May 2017.

The Mystery of Alta Muse

by Kristine Schmucker, HCHM Curator

Based on research notes from Brian Stucky’s Alta Mill research.

“Alta was named in memory of the deceased daughter of the writer, Alta O. Muse.” — Judge R.W.P. Muse, History of Harvey County: 1871-1881.

Historical Atlas of Harvey County – Alta Township indicated.

In his 1881 History of Harvey County Judge Muse, noted in the section on naming cities and townships:  “Alta was named in memory of the deceased daughter of the writer, Alta O. Muse.” Alta Muse was something of a mystery to Harvey County historians.  She does not show up on Harvey County census, nor was she buried in a Harvey County cemetery . . . until recently.

Brian Stucky was able to connect the name with story of Alta Muse.  While researching the Alta Mill located in the Alta township in Harvey County, Stucky stumbled on a clue that led to a sad story.

This is one of those moments in historical research that you just gasp and shake, when you say to yourself, “I found her. I finally found her.” –Brian Stucky, June 2018

Stucky noted: “I always thought for some reason that Alta was a young daughter, maybe 9 years old, but I don’t know where I got that.  No, she was older, age 23, and she was married to a Josiah Sinclair for almost 2 years.  So, we’re looking for someone named Alta Sinclair.”  Newpapers had been added to the site and out of curiosity, he included a search on Alta Muse.

“What popped up was a newspaper from Woodsfield, Ohio, called “Spirit of Democracy.”  The date of the story was April 27, 1869. Wow. And, it was the WEDDING OF ALTA O. MUSE and Josiah Sinclair, in Zanesville, OH where they lived. She was married April 6, 1869.  I quit breathing for a minute or two.”

With the knowledge of her married name, Stucky searched Find-a-Grave for “Alta Sinclair.”

 “And there it is, a page on her grave, picture of the gravestone, name of her father, Judge R.W.P. Muse, to absolutely confirm it.”

Who was Alta Muse?

Alta Olivia Muse was born in McConnelsville August 17, 1847 to Judge RWP and Julia Hurd Muse. She would be one of four daughters born to the couple.  In 1852, Judge Muse moved his family to Zanesville, OH.  On August 24, 1860, Alta’s older sister, Ada, died at the age of 19.

Alta spent her growing up years in Zanesville community, graduating from high school in 1866. She “enjoyed, in an uncommon degree, the respect and esteem of her fellow pupils and teachers, who alike recognized her moral and intellectual excellence.”

For her obituary a former high school principal  praised her scholarship and character.

“Her manners and address were such as to engage in advance all opinions in her favor.  Her light- hearted gayety (sic) and energy in bearing her part in every school enterprise rendering her a pleasing companion and valued associate. . . . Her application to her studies . . . established her reputation as a successful student. By the side of her early grave the writer can only remember her unusual personal attractions and agreeable manners.”

She was baptized on February 7, 1869 and as a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, she had a strong “desire for Christian usefulness.”  Many of her friends could “recall more than one incident  . . . which strikingly exemplified the thoroughly practical character of her religion.

She married married Josiah Sinclair “at the residence of the bride’s father, R.W.P. Muse” on April 6, 1869. Following the ceremony, the newlyweds lived in Pittsburgh.

Marriage Announcement, Spirit of Democracy. Woodsfield, OH, 27 April 1869.

Sadly, the couple did not have “long life and unalloyed happiness.”  After “a few months, her failing health  rendered it advisable that she should return to her father’s house.”

Alta died at her father’s home on February 15, 1871 at the age of 23 after a “long and tedious illness.”

A Father’s Grief

Shortly after her death in February, Judge Muse was traveling in Kansas to the new town of Newton.

Muse writes in The  Harvey County History:

“The first passenger train crossed the new bridge over the Cottonwood (river) and entered Florence on May 8th, 1871.  This was then the terminus of the railroad. The writer was on that train, en route for Newton, for the purpose of there erecting an office to be ready to put the railroad lands upon the market, as soon as the railroad reached that point, and was accepted by the governor.  

            ……We arrived on the town site on the afternoon of May 10th, 1871, and passed over it to the banks of the Sand Creek, where several railroad officials had camped for the night, being on their way west to kill buffalo.  We stayed that night with the late Capt. John Sebastian, who was living on a tent, on the west bank of the Sand Creek, near the end of the present Broadway bridge.

Brian notes:

“So, Alta died Feb. 15, and by May 10, her father was camping on the west bank of the Sand Creek. No wonder the memory of his daughter was fresh in his mind.  Of course it was natural for him to want to name something after Alta.  It was a township.”

Alta’s husband, Josiah Sinclair, according to information on  Find-a-Grave, went back  Wheeling, West Virginia. He married again in 1874 and served 7 terms in the West Virginia legislature. Sinclair died in 1914.

Thank you to Brian Stucky for sharing his research notes on Alta Muse Sinclair.

Additional Sources:

  • Bowman, Mrs. C.S. “Organization of Harvey County” typed manuscript, October 7, 1907, HCHM Archives, Newton, Ks.
  • Muse, Judge RWP.  History of Harvey County: 1871-1881.
  • “Judge Muse Dead” Newton Daily Republican, 23 November 1896.
  • Julia Hurd Muse Obituary, Newton Kansan, 30 July 1890
  • Marriage Announcement, Spirit of Democracy. Woodsfield, OH, 27 April 1869.
  • “Alta O. Muse Sinclair Obituary” Spirit of Democracy 28 February 1871, Zanesville Courier.
  • Find-A-Grave, “Alta O. Muse Sinclair” Memorial Number 6292265.
  • Find-A-Grave, “Josiah Sinclair” Memorial Number 187771766.
  • Find-A-Grave, “Ada Burke Muse” Memorial Number 6292263.
  • U.S. Census, 1850, 1880.
  • Kansas State Census, 1895.