“Over Dickey’s Drug Store:” Harvey County Health Care

by Kristine Schmucker, HCHM Curator

“Over Dickey’s Drug Store”

Dickeys Drug Store, 611 N. Main, Newton, Ks, 1883. The doctor’s office was located on the 2nd floor.

In the April 19, 1883 Newton Kansan a small ad appeared announcing the partnership of two physicians, Drs. J.D. Sherrick and J.T. Axtell.  They rented office space “over Dickey’s drug store” at 611 N. Main, Newton, Ks.

Newton Kansan, 19 April 1883

Two months later, Dr. Sherrick moved to Seattle, Washington, leaving Dr. Axtell alone to meet the medical needs of the growing community. Eventually Drs. T.C. Brewer and W.C. Nolder joined the practice.

All the Modern Improvements

The practice quickly out grew the office on the second floor of Dickey’s Drug Store, and Dr. Axtell began planning a small hospital with an emphasis on care for surgical patients.  He purchased several lots on the second block of East Broadway, Newton, including a six room house. In an interview with Dr. Axtell regarding his plans,  the Kansan  reporter noted that Axtell planned to renovate the building and “supply the rooms with all the modern improvements.”  By spring 1887, Dr Axtell’s hospital was ready for patients.

Formally established in 1887, Axtell Christian Hospital became the 5th general, non-military hospital in Kansas. The hospital was also unique that it was the first to be privately owned by a physician.

Axtell Hospital, 207 East Broadway, Newton, Ks, 1887-1911.

In 1911 a new fireproof hospital was built at the east Broadway location.


  • Newton Kansan, 19 April 1883, 17 February 1887, 19 May 1887.
  • Myers, Lana W. Newton Medical Center:  Merging the Past with the Future. Mennonite Press, Newton, Ks, 2006

Saint of the City: Miss Johanna Conway

by Kristine Schmucker, HCHM Curator

“With the passing of ‘Jo’ Conway, as she was familiarly known, one of the true Christians and saints of the city is taken.” (Evening Kansan Republican, 5 October 1929.)

Miss Johanna Conway was one of several women that worked to improve the health of the community following the first World War.

The roots for the Public Nurse got it’s start when the Bethel Deaconess  Women’s Auxiliary was established on March 22, 1910.  One of their many projects was to sponsor a public nurse in Newton.  In 1916, Sister Anna Gertrude Penner became the first “visiting nurse.”  Her duties were varied and went beyond caring for the sick to educating people on proper hygiene and safety. In 1918, the responsibility to finance the program was shifted to the city of Newton.

At the same time a group of women at St. Mary’s Catholic Church became concerned about the conditions of the “Mexican Camps.” The Santa Fe Railroad provided the housing for the Mexican laborers and their families.  Conditions were far from ideal in the early buildings.  Several women from St Mary’s parish devoted their lives to caring for those in need including Miss Johanna Conway, Miss Lillian Fitzpatrick and later Miss Lucile Thomas.


Miss Johanna Conway, ca. 1920.

Miss Jo Conway with her little Mexican friends”

Johanna Conway was born in 1857 in Ohio. By 1895 she had moved to Newton, Kansas where she lived with her brother and sister at 219 E 4th. She dedicated her life to providing help to the Mexican community.

From 1920-1923, Miss Jo was involved in providing assistance to the Mexican American community in Newton. In 1920, she was the chairman of a committee with “plans for Americanization work among the Mexican people.” (Evening Kansan Republican, 8 September 1920)

On the back: “Miss Jo with her little Mexican friends.” Josie Victorio Collection, HCHM Photos.

Goals of the committee included teaching English and needed skills for future employment including “industrial work and sanitation  lines of work.”  Rev. William Schaefer gave “instruction” each Wednesday afternoon. He was encouraged “to have the Americanization work taken up by the committee of women of the St. Mary’s parish and pursued actively . . .  the betterment of the Mexicans.”

Miss Edith Stauforth, nurse, Miss Jo Conway, sponsor, Mrs. Socorra Jimenez, Mrs. Irene Gomez Mrs. Candelaria Florez. Josie Victorio Collection, HCHM Photos.

In October the Evening Kansan Republican reported “under the able leadership of Miss Jo” a “band of willing” women spent two afternoons each week “teaching both old and young Mexicans those things which they ought to know but do not know.” On October 28, the group of students and teachers held a musical showcasing their progress. Tickets were $1 and the proceeds would “aid in making it possible to further the activities” among the Mexican community.

“Humanitarian Work of the Community”

In fall of 1922, a call went out from the Southwestern Division of Red Cross seeking assistance to “relieve the suffering of the children” in South Russia. Conway supervised the efforts of local women to create clothing for these children in need.  In her report at the Red Cross Quarterly meeting Miss Jo noted that over 1500 pounds of new and used clothing had been shipped for Russian Relief.  Of that 1500, 700 pounds were new garments made by local women for babies and small children.

In 1923, Miss Jo served as one of seven directors for a newly formed Public Health Service. After 1923, her name vanishes from the newspapers. Her obituary indicates illness in her last years. Johanna Conway died October 5, 1929 at Bethel Deaconess Hospital, Newton, Kansas.  She was buried in St Mary’s Cemetery.

Her obituary in the October 5, 1929  Evening Kansan Republican concluded;

“A devout member of the Catholic church, a pioneer  worker in St Mary’s parish. . . . She was a leader and organizer in humanitarian work of the community. . . . Her welfare work with the Mexican settlement began at a time when the homes of these people were mere huts and she has been working assiduously here until her illness, a work that cannot be measured on this earth.”


  • Evening Kansan Republican: 8 September 1920, 16 October 1920, 21 October 1921, 20 April 1922, 22 September 1922, 12 October 1922, 23 May 1923, 5 October 1929.
  • Newton, Kansas City Directories: 1887, 1902,  1905, 1911, 1913, 1917, 1919, 1931, 1934, 1938.
  • Kansas State Census, 1895.
  • U. S. Census, 1920, 1930.




“The Desire of Her Heart:” Sister Frieda Kaufman

by Kristine Schmucker, HCHM Curator

We continue to feature fabulous women of Harvey County as part of Women’s History Month. Women were leaders in Harvey County health care.  Previous posts have featured Dr. Lucine Axtell at Axtell Christian Hospital and Sister Anna Gertrude Penner Harvey County’s first Public nurse.  At Bethel Deaconess Hospital, Sister Frieda Kaufman shaped the institution and influenced many lives.

Sister Frieda Kaufman, ca. 1930. Photo courtesy Newton Medical Center, Newton, Ks

On May 27, 1942, Sister Frieda Kaufman received the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Bethel College for her lifelong work as a deaconess and ‘sister-in-charge’ of the Bethel Deaconess Home and Hospital in Newton, Ks. Sister Frieda was the first Mennonite woman to receive an honorary degree from a Mennonite institution of high learning. After the ceremony for the conferment of the degree, Sister Frieda returned alone to the sisters’ home and later that day “a friend found her on her knees washing the floor.”

Known to most people in the community as “Sister Frieda,” she was the driving force behind the Bethel Deaconess Home and Hospital and the deaconess program in the Mennonite Church.

Early Life

Frieda was born in Haagen, in Wiesental, Baden, Germany on October 23, 1883, the ninth child born to John and Marie (Egle) Kaufman and one of three that lived to adulthood.  As a child, Frieda attended a schools run by Lutheran deaconess and later Catholic nuns.  Years later, she recalled her childhood affinity with the deaconess and nuns, noting“the desire of her heart to become a sister did not disappear” as she got older.

At the age of 8, Frieda with her family migrated to the U.S.  After a long, difficult journey the Kaufman family arrived in Halstead, Ks on July 2, 1892. Their transition to life on the prairie was made easier by members of their extended family already living in south central Kansas. Frieda did not forget the “desire of her heart.”

“The Desire of Her Heart”

In the late 1890s, Rev. David Goerz, Newton, Ks, was exploring the possible ways for women to serve within the structure of the Mennonite Church. He was interested in the deaconess programs within Lutheran churches and considering such a program for the Mennonite Church. The idea of deaconesses was rooted in early Christianity as a way for unmarried women or widows to voluntarily care for the poor and sick in the community.  The word “deaconess” comes from the Greek word diakonia which meant “faith active in love and service to all.” In the late 1800s, the idea of deaconesses was popular among Protestant  churches.  Under the leadership of Goerz, the idea of deaconesses in the Mennonite Church gained popularity. In Frieda Kaufman, Rev. Goerz found the first young woman interested in dedicating her life to the work.

In August 1902, Frieda began at training  the Interdenominational Deaconess Home & Hospital in Cincinnati.  During training, she lived at the hospital and was expected to work twelve hour shifts in addition to attending classes and keeping up with assignments. She completed her training and returned to Kansas in 1904. She started working at Bethesda Hospital & Home in Goessel, Ks, and in private homes in the area.

Sister Frieda Kaufman

On June 11, 1908, the Bethel Deaconess Home & Hospital, located on south Pine in Newton, was dedicated and the first three Mennonite deaconesses in America were ordained, Sisters Frieda Kaufman,  Catherine Voth and Ida Epp. At the age of twenty-five, Sister Frieda was appointed deaconess mother and superintendent of the hospital in addition to her nursing duties. She also taught and oversaw the nurses’ training school at Bethel Deaconess Hospital.

Bethel Deaconess Home & Hospital, s Pine, Newton, Ks. 1908.

Throughout the early years most of the work at the hospital was performed by the deaconesses.  Although some were trained RNs, like Sister Frieda, all helped with housekeeping and laundry. As deaconess mother, Sister Frieda oversaw the day-to-day activities of the hospital.  The deaconesses lived at the hospital and they did not receive payment for their work.  Instead, the hospital met their needs and provided a small monthly allowance for personal items.

A Very Precise Individual”

Over the next twenty years, the administration of the hospital would take more of Kaufman’s time as the institution grew. Until 1943, Sister Frieda was a constant, driving force for both the hospital and home, as well as the deaconess cause within the Mennonite Church.

Sister Frieda was described as a “short and somewhat overweight” woman and “she had to puff a little upon excretion.  Her countenance was always very pleasant.” Sister Theodosia Harms, who lived and worked with Sister Frieda for years, noted Sister Frieda had a reputation as being a “very precise individual, anything that had to be done, had to be done perfect,” and she expected this of herself as well as others.  Nursing students remember that her office door was always open.

In the community, she was an active member at 1st Mennonite Church, 429 East 1st, Newton. Her influence can be seen in the stain glass windows of church built in 1932. She viewed the art-glass windows as a”reverential necessity.”

Interior 1st Mennonite Church, 429 East 1st, Newton, Ks, 2009.


On August 7, 1944, at the age of sixty, Sister Frieda Kaufman passed away due to complications from diabetes and a heart condition.  She was buried in the Bethel Sister Family lot at Greenwood Cemetery, Newton Ks.

With almost single minded purpose Sister Frieda Kaufman became a deaconess and spent the rest of her life encouraging other women to join her in the work.  She enjoyed people, which contributed to her success as a nurse. She could have been a nurse without becoming a deaconess.  She chose to become a deaconess —  she saw it as a way of life.


This post is condensed from a longer biography of Sister Frieda Kaufman by Kristine Schmucker, 1991.

  • Sister Frieda Kaufman’s papers which include correspondence, articles  written by Sister Frieda and diaries are located at the Mennonite Library & Archives, Bethel College, North Newton, Ks.
  • Sister Theodosia Harms, interview by Marilyn Schmidt, “Portraits: Theodosia Harms, Agnes Lorentz and Anna Marie Goertz.”  Kansas Collection, video cassette produced by the Newton Public Library, Newton, Ks, n.d.
  • Lamps on the Prairie:  A History of Nursing in Kansas complied by the writers’ program of the Works Projects Administration, State of Kansas.  Emporia, Ks: Emporia Gazette Press, 1942.
  • Barrett, Lois. The Vision and the Reality:  the Story of Home Missions in the General Conference Mennonite Church. Newton, Ks:  Faith & Life Press, 1983.
  • Dietzel, Ron and Robert Schrag, ed. Mission & Memory: 125th Anniversary First Mennonite Church of Newton, 1878-2003. Historical Committee, 2003.